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What are some important milestones in psychologys early development?
Wilhelm Hundt established the first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Germany. Two early schools were
structuralism and functionalism.
How did psychology continue to develop from the 1920s through today?
Early researchers define psychology as a science of mental life. In the 1920s under the influence of John B. Watson
and the behaviorists, the field's focus changed to the scientific study of observable behavior. In the 1960s,
the humanistic psychologists and the cognitive psychologists revived interest in the study of mental processes.
Psychology is now defined as the science of behavior and mental processes.
What is Psychologys historic big issue?
Psychologys biggest and most enduring issue has been the nature-nurture issue, which focuses on the relative
contributions of genes and experience. Todays science emphasizes the interaction of genes and experiences in
specific environments. Charles Darwins view that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies is an
important principle in contemporary psychology.
What are psychologys levels of analysis and related perspectives?
The biopsychosocial approach integrates information from 3 different but complementary levels of analysis:
the biological, psychosocial, and social-cultural. This approach offers a more complete understanding than
could usually be reached by relying on only of psychologys current perspectives (neuroscience, evolutionary,
behavior genetics, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social-cultural).
What are psychologys main subfields?
Within the science of psychology, researchers may conduct basic research to increase the field's knowledge base
(often in biological, developmental, cognitive, personality, and social psychology) or applied research to
solve practical problems (in industrial-organizational psychology and other areas).
Those who engage in psychology as a helping profession may assist people as counseling psychologists
(helping people with problems in living or achieving greater well-being), clinical psychologists, studying
and assessing people with psychological issues and treating them with psychotherapy. (Psychiatrists also
study, assess, and treat people with disorders, but as medical doctors, they may prescribe drugs in
addition to psychotherapy.) Positive psychology attempts to discover and promote traits that help people
thrive. Community psychologists work to create healthy social and physical environments.
How can psychological principles help you learn and remember?
The testing effect shows that learning and memory are enhanced by actively retrieving, rather than simply
rereading, previously studied material. the SQ3R study method - survey, question, read, retrieve, review -
applies principles derived from memory research. Four additional tips are (1) distribute your study time;
(2) learn to think critically; (3) process class information actively; and (4) overlearn.
How do hindsight bias, overconfidence, and the tendency to preceive order in random events illustrate why
science-based answers are more valid than those based on intuition and common sense.?
Hindsight bias, also called the I knew it all along phenomenon, is the tendency to believe, after learning
that we would have forseen it. Overconfidence in our judgments results partly from our bias to seek information
that confirms them. These tendencies, plus our eagerness to perceive patterns in random events, lead us to
overestimate our intuition. Although limited by the testable questions it can address, scientific inquiry can
help us overcome our intuition's biases and shortcomings.
How do the scientific attitude's 3 main components relate to critical thinking?
The scientific attitude equips us to be curious, skeptical, and humble in scrutinizing competing ideas
or our own observations. this attitude carries into everyday life as critical thinking, which puts ideas
to the test by examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence, and assessing conclusions.
How do theories advance psychological science?
Psychological theories are explanations that apply an integrated set of principles to organize observations
and generate hypotheses - predictions that can be used to check the theory or produce practical applications
of it. By testing their hypotheses, researchers can confirm, reject or revise their theories. To enable
other researchers to replicate the studies, researchers report them using precise operational definitions
of their procedures and concepts. If others acheive similar results, confidence in the conclusion will be